# Circuits: Theory and Usage

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## Learning Electrical Theory and Wiring

A basic electric circuit may consist of a wire (conductor) loop connecting a current source to a load through a switch. When the switch is actuated, the load activates and the current gets a path to complete the circuit from a high potential level to the opposite low potential level.

Our house wiring can be considered as the best example of a basic electric circuit, where the AC mains becomes the current source and the switch and the respective loads become the other accompanying factors.

Before embarking on complex electronic circuits, it is imperative for the students to first learn and master the above discussed electric wiring. The following articles related to house wiring become the ideal recommended first step for understanding basic electrical wiring:

How Electrical Fuse Work

How to Understand Electrical Wiring

How to Safe Guard Against Electrical Shocks

How to do Electrical Wiring

What is Voltage

How a Dry Cell Works

## Understanding the Role of Voltage and Current in an Electrical Circuit

After learning the basics of electrical wiring, an aspiring hobbyist becomes quite eligible for an improved understanding electronic circuits. However the candidate still needs to reinforce himself with the theoretical part of the subject, which probably becomes the backbone of all technical studies. The articles listed below provides a comprehensive explanation regarding electronics basics, equipping the reader with the required prior expertise about the subject.

How to Calculate Current, Voltage and Resistance in Transformerless Power Supplies.

Understanding Basic Electronic Theory

How to Understand Current, Voltage and Resistor in an Electrical Circuit

How to Identify Electronic Components Practically

How to Understand Electronic Network Theorem

How to Understand Electrical Circuit Theory

How to Understand Engineering Circuit Analysis

## Tools Required for Practical Electronics

Though the theoretical study as discussed in the above sections is very important for newcomers in the field, the various tools and equipment needed for assembling electronic circuits also becomes an integral part of the whole system. The steps explained in the following articles hels the student to know the relevant tools like the soldering iron and multimeter and how to use them while making electronic circuits.

How to do Soldering

How to Use a Multimeter

How to Learn Breadboarding

## How to Understand Electronic Components

An electronic circuit is invariably composed of a network of many electronic components like resistors, capacitors, transistors etc. All these components are unique with their functions and incorporate definite and dimensioned individual specifications. Without knowing regarding these specs, a student might feel completely “handicapped” with the various functioning and terms associated with the relevant parts. An initial overview of the many properties and calculations involved with these components can be acquired from the articles presented below:

How Resistors Function

Resistors in Series and Parallel

Resistor Color Code Explained

Measuring Resistor Color Codes

How a Potentiometer Works

How to Understand Capacitors

How Capacitors Work

What are Ultra Capacitors

How do Transistors Work

What is hFE in Transistors

How to Wire NPN and PNP Transistors

How to Use 2N3055 Transistors

## Why Transformers are so Important with Electronics

An electronic circuit can be very much incomplete until it’s appropriately powered. Powering a circuit basically involves providing voltage and current to them. However, electronic circuits, being quite vulnerable to high voltages and currents, require perfectly trimmed and regulated power supplies to make them function optimally and safely.

Transformers are specifically intended for lowering the available high voltages from our domestic power line so that the application becomes suitable for the particular circuit which is being used.

The following articles tell us about these magnificent power converters and ways of implementing them for the desired applications:

How Transformers Work

How to Calculate Transformers

How to Make Transformerless Power Supply

How to Design Autotransformer

How to Build a Homemade Variac

## How to Make a Stabilized Power Supply

Having discussed using transformers for stepping down the voltage up to the desired limits, you should know that the operation does not merely end there. The lowered voltage is still AC and entirely undesirable for using with an electronic circuit. The delivered power needs to be made into a DC and filtered thoroughly to make it ideally compatible with electronic circuits.

The process of making AC into DC is called rectification. The main components engaged with rectification of the applied AC from a transformer are fundamentally the diodes: the rectifier diode and the zener diode. An LED is also a diode, however the part is better known for its light emitting abilities and therefore used as voltage indicators for indicating the presence of a DC voltage and other similar visual indications.

Modern power supplies heavily involve voltage regulator ICs which help to enhance the voltage quality dramatically. Interestingly, all these parts are also active electronic components serving for the other connected electronic circuits.

A few of the related topics concerned with power supply equipment are discussed below:

What is Rectification

How do Bridge Rectifiers Work

How Diode Rectifiers Work

How to Understand and Use Zener Diodes

How to Optimize Zener Diode Stability

How to Test LED Lights

How to Wire LED Lights

How Voltage Doublers Work

How to Make a Regulated Variable Power Supply

## How to Understand and Make Digital Electronic Circuits

Using and applying electronic circuits comprehensively may seriously involve integrated circuits or the ICs. ICs are sophisticated electronic components, containing complex embedded built-in networks of transistors and capacitors. These components have many pin-outs with specified functions. ICs are used for making complicated circuits capable of performing sophisticated operations in small areas thus making the units compact and easy to handle.

Digital ICs are predominantly used in today’s modern world. How they function, and simple circuits showing their usage, has been explained in the following compilation:

How to Understand Digital Circuits

How to Understand Electronic Gates

How AND, NAND and NOT Gates Function

How to Build Circuits Using NAND Gates

How to Build Circuits Using NOT Gates

How to Use NOR Gates as Flip Flops

## References

• Linked articles.

Authors own experience.