Thermodynamics is a physical science describing how systems change when they interact with each other or their surroundings. These interactions occur through transfer of energy and can be studied either at the macroscopic scale, through changes in temperature, pressure and volume, or at the micro-scale, by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistical methods.
The field was firstly developed due to the need of increased steam engine efficiency in the early 19th century. The famous French physicist Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1824), often described as the "Father of thermodynamics," was the first to study heat engines through a scientific scope and laid the foundations for the second law of thermodynamics through his well-known Carnot cycle.
Other fields of physics and chemistry also use thermodynamic principles, including chemical and mechanical engineering, aerospace engineering, biomedical engineering, materials science, and even economics. Visit these links to get to know the fundamentals of thermodynamics:
- Thermodynamics: Integral Part of our Life
- Who Invented Thermodynamics? Biography of Sadi Carnot
- What is a Thermodynamic System?
- What is Thermodynamic Equilibrium?
- What is a Thermodynamic Process?
- Causes of Non-Equilibrium of the System
- Types of Thermodynamic Systems and Important Terms Related to Thermodynamics
- What are Reversible and Irreversible Processes?
Variables and Thermodynamic Processes
After having checked the basics, we are introduced to a series of thermodynamic processes that involve the change of all system's state variables (temperature, volume, pressure) except one. For example, an isothermal process (Boyle's law) occurs when the temperature is kept constant, the isobaric process (Charle's law) occurs at constant pressure, and the isochoric process (Gay-Lussac's law) when the volume is stable. There are other processes as well, such as the adiabatic, the isentropic, the isenthalpic, etc. All these take place with the exchange of heat and work between a given thermodynamic system and its enviroment.
Discover more about processes and terms such as energy, heat, entropy and enthalpy in the following articles:
- Law of Energy Conservation
- What is the Specific Heat of the Substance?
- What is Heat Transfer?
- Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Theory and Design
- How Heat Works
- What is The Ideal Gas Law?
- Boyle's Law
- Charles' Law
- Gay-Lussac's Law
The Four Principles or Laws
The field involves a set of four laws whose main role is to define the physical quantities of temperature, heat, energy, and entropy, and to describe how the transfer of energy as heat and work takes place in thermodynamic systems.
These four laws summarize all the important thermodynamic principles and can be expressed in various forms. They are known as the zeroth, first, second, and third law of thermodynamics and are considered to be fundamental physical laws, applicable in other natural sciences as well.
For more details visit the articles related to each law correspondingly and learn more about entropy, the physical quantity introduced by the third law:
- The Zeroth Law – The Basis for Temperature Measurement
- The First Law – Mankind’s Dependency on Nature for Energy
- The Second Law – You Need Efforts to go against Nature
- Different Statements of Second Law of Thermodynamics
- The Third Law – What happens at Absolute Zero Temperature?
- Fun Facts About Absolute Zero
- What is Entropy?
- The Principle of Increase of Entropy
- What is the Triple Point of Water?
Cycles and Engines
Thermodynamic cycles are nothing more but a succession of thermodynamic processes that transfer heat and work between a given system and its environment. The combination of any of the above processes form a cycle that works in accordance to the four laws mentioned earlier. Their importance lies in the fact that they are actually the basis for the function of heat engines. The most simple and well-known are the Carnot cycle, the Ericsson cycle, the Otto, and the Diesel cycle:
- General and Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids
- Mechanical Engineer's Tools: Understanding the Thermodynamics Steam Table
- The Carnot Cycle and Carnot Theorem: Working and Relation to Second Law of Thermodynamics
- What is a Thermodynamic Reversed Heat Engine?
- The Ericsson or Brayton Cycle
- Air Standard Cycle
- Otto Cycle
- Diesel Cycle
Apart from being important theoretical tools, the principles of thermodynamics have been used by scientists for a wide range of applications since the early 19th century. Many technological wonders and everyday appliances are based on these principles: internal combustion engines and jet engines, (cars, motorcycles, trucks, ships, aeroplanes), air and gas compressors, blowers, fans, heat exchangers, evaporators, condensers, air-conditioning systems, radiators, coolers, heaters, thermometers, refrigerators and the list goes on and on.
Some of these applications are described here in more detail:
- Applications of Second Law of Thermodynamics: Automobile Engines
- Applications of Second Law of Thermodynamics: Refrigerators
- Working Principle of Internal Combustion Engines
- The Thermal Expansion of Water
- Constant Volume Gas Thermometer
- What are Refrigerants? History of Refrigerants
As mentioned earlier, apart from the theory for studying a system's interactions with its environment, the field also provided the principles for the operation of the first steam or heat engines. But, thermodynamics has much more to offer. A wide range of phenomena occurring in nature, within biological systems, ecosystems, and the universe itself could find some interesting explanations here.
- Thermodynamic Mysteries: What is Meant by the Heat Death of the Universe?
- Thermodynamic Mysteries: Giant Killer Hornets, Honeybees, and the First Law of Thermodynamics
- Thermodynamic Mysteries: Seed Bugs, Evergreen Trees, and Thermal Radiation
- Thermodynamic Mysteries: How Does A Toucan Keep its Cool
- How are Thermodynamics and Relativity Related?
- Introduction to Thermodynamics, Canteach.Candu.Org
- Author's experience and expertise
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