The choice of which air conditioner system to use depends upon a number of factors including how large the area is to be cooled, the total heat generated inside the enclosed area, etc. An HVAC designer would consider all the related parameters and suggest the system most suitable for your space.
Window Air Conditioner
Window air conditioner is the most commonly used air conditioner for single rooms. In this air conditioner all the components, namely the compressor, condenser, expansion valve or coil, evaporator and cooling coil are enclosed in a single box. This unit is fitted in a slot made in the wall of the room, or more commonly a window sill.
Must Read: Parts of Window Air Conditioners
Split Air Conditioner
The split air conditioner comprises of two parts: the outdoor unit and the indoor unit. The outdoor unit, fitted outside the room, houses components like the compressor, condenser and expansion valve. The indoor unit comprises the evaporator or cooling coil and the cooling fan. For this unit you don’t have to make any slot in the wall of the room. Further, present day split units have aesthetic appeal and do not take up as much space as a window unit. A split air conditioner can be used to cool one or two rooms.
Packaged Air Conditioner
An HVAC designer will suggest this type of air conditioner if you want to cool more than two rooms or a larger space at your home or office. There are two possible arrangements with the package unit. In the first one, all the components, namely the compressor, condenser (which can be air cooled or water cooled), expansion valve and evaporator are housed in a single box. The cooled air is thrown by the high capacity blower, and it flows through the ducts laid through various rooms. In the second arrangement, the compressor and condenser are housed in one casing. The compressed gas passes through individual units, comprised of the expansion valve and cooling coil, located in various rooms.
Central Air Conditioning System
Central air conditioning is used for cooling big buildings, houses, offices, entire hotels, gyms, movie theaters, factories etc. If the whole building is to be air conditioned, HVAC engineers find that putting individual units in each of the rooms is very expensive making this a better option. A central air conditioning system is comprised of a huge compressor that has the capacity to produce hundreds of tons of air conditioning. Cooling big halls, malls, huge spaces, galleries etc is usually only feasible with central conditioning units.