The Rabbit Diesel Engine
The Volkswagen Rabbit pickup truck diesel engine was designed and produced in the VW factory in Germany and was the forerunner of the Pathfinder Marine engine. The Pathfinder was produced at the VW Factory and later for over 12 years at the VW Marine works in Germany. It proved a very reliable and economical diesel engine quickly becoming a very popular choice of engine among the Canadian fishing fleet and the sailing-boat fraternity.
This is an article on Marine Engineering and focuses on the design, operation, and overhaul of Pathfinder Marine Engine. We begin with an overview on the origin of this marine diesel engine, moving onto the design and operation of the VW Pathfinder.
Overview – Volkswagen Pathfinder Marine Engine
The Volkswagen Pathfinder Marine Engine was a marine version of their 1.6l Rabbit pick-up truck diesel engine. This engine was designed and built at the Volkswagen plant in Germany initially for the VW golf, to compete against the then voracious Japanese car market. The Golf was to become a very popular car, still the choice of many people today.
In 1979 the Rabbit Pickup was introduced, using a 1.6l, 4 cylinder diesel engine that was reliable and economical. Having a heavy payload, the pickup proved to be a workhorse regularly clocking up over 100,000 miles.
This led to the production of the Pathfinder Marine engine that continued into the 1990’s at the new VW Marine manufacturing works in Salzgitter, a city between Hildesheim and Braunschweig in Lower Saxony Germany.
Volkswagen Marine is still producing modern diesel engines to suit a variety of craft, from 40 to 265hp. A modern Marine engine from VW Marine is shown below, please click on image to enlarge:
The production of the Pathfinder has now ended, but fear not; there is a conversion kit available for the mechanically minded or marine engineers among us that enables the marinization of the VW Rabbit engine, maybe to fit into your boat.
Design, Operation, and Overhaul of Pathfinder Marine Engine
The Pathfinder started production in the late 1970s, starting with the 1600cc, 4-cylinder marine diesel engine. They were painted orange from early versions around 1978 to 1982, with the livery changing to all silver grey color from 1982 to the end of production in the early 1980’s.
The design of the Pathfinder marine diesel engine was a reproduction of their very successful VW Golf and Caddy autos and Rabbit pickup diesel engines.
These dry-land versions were very reliable, often returning 45mpg, and clocking up well over 100,000 trouble-free miles. I owned a couple of late 70’s VW Golfs with gas engines that were a peach to work on. Changing air/oil filters were a doddle, and I don’t think I topped up the oil between oil/filter changes.
I had to scrap the first one at 150,000 miles, but not for engine or transmission problems; it was the box-sections under the door sills that were the problem area, these having to be cut out and renewed and finally I had no metal to weld to!
From reading the various VW on-line forums operation of the Pathfinder Marine Diesel appears to be quite simple and straight forward being much less complex than other more modern engines.
Some Pathfinder engines do tend to run hot, but this is normally due to inadequate heat exchanger or a problem with the engine cooling pump; an unsuitable / oversize prop can also hasten overheating at extended revs.
Once again from perusing the on-line forums, there are a few potential problem areas to look out for.
- Timing Belt – this is rubber and although no problem on the shoreside engines, the marine engine belts seem to deteriorate quiet quickly and snap.
No-one seems to know the reason for this; some possible reasons are the salty environment combined with the boat being laid up in the winter season, leading to cracks in the rubber.
There is nothing worse than a snapped timing belt and as we all know, one of the engineer’s worst nightmares, the valves being struck by the rising pistons with resulting top end overhaul. On Pathfinder/VW websites, there are various belt-change intervals quoted from 2000-3000 running hours; I have also seen somewhere that VW recommend 1000 running hours between timing belt renewals. Depending on the engine usage this seems a reasonable period.
- Access to Engine – because of the low-lying location of the Pathfinder engine in the boat’s hull, maintenance can be difficult. If you have the facilities it is probably better to lift the engine out of the boat for major overhaul of particularly inaccessible components. However, a lot of the sailing boat fraternity feel compensated for the location of the engine as it adds weight to the lower hull increasing stability.
So there we have it: a short article on the history, design, operation and overhaul of the Volkswagen Pathfinder Marine Diesel Engine, written by a retired Marine Engineer. Although I have never sailed with this engine, I have owned and overhauled several VW Golf engines.
The Pathfinder certainly was a popular engine well liked by most enthusiasts and the older mechanics – apart from the dreaded timing belt problem, which as we have seen can be overcome by regular replacement.
Spares are still available, but suppliers take a bit tracking down, although the older VW auto engine parts are mostly interchangeable with the marine engines. The auto scrap yards should still have a selection of VW engines from which the required components can be stripped.