Automatic and Autonomous Type Robots

Automatic Type Robots are an integral part of several industrial robotics systems, and are supposed to be the earliest type of robotic system present in the market today. Automatic robots are divided into four main categories, mainly based on their characteristics and application.

Manipulation robotic system can be can be classified into three main types:

  • Autonomous controlled
  • Remotely controlled
  • Manually controlled

An autonomous robotic system is mainly used as industrial robots whereas the remotely controlled robots are used in areas or environments which are inaccessible or harmful to humans. The manually controlled system is used for handling goods or for transportation purposes.


Classification of Autonomous Robotic system

Out of the three types of manipulation robotic systems, the autonomous system can be further classified into

  • Programmable
  • Non Programmable
  • Adaptive
  • Intelligent

Programmable and Non Programmable Automatic Robots

Out of these, non-programmable robots are of the most basic type. In fact a non-programmable robot is not even considered a robot, but a manipulator devoid of any reprogrammable controlling device. One example of such robots is the mechanical arm used in industries. Non-programmable robots are generally attached to programmable equipment used in manufacturing industries for mass production.

A programmable robot, as the name suggests, is a first generation robot with an actuator with the facility of each of its joints being reprogrammable according to the kind of application. The function and application of the robots can be changed just by reprogramming the robot, however once programmed, they perform a specific function in a fixed sequence and fixed pattern. All the industrial robots are of programmable type which would perform a monotonous motion both in the presence or absence of any part in its grip. The main drawback of this type of robot is that, once programmed, it can be used to hold an object of a specific type and shape and that too placed in a particular position. As this type of robot cannot change its position when required, it is always a bit difficult to use in a changing application system.

Adaptive Robots

Adaptive robots are also industrial robots, but of a kind more sophisticated than programmable robots. Unlike programmable robots, adaptive robots can adapt to a certain extent and, after evaluating a particular situation, perform the action required. In order to enable them to perform these tasks, adaptive robots are equipped with sensors and control system. The sensors sense the change in environmental conditions, and the control system, by assessing the signals from sensors, provides the required motion. Adaptive robots are generally used in situations wherein it is difficult to program a robot to perform actions in a particular pattern due to obstacles or other moving parts. Adaptive robots are used in functions such as welding, spray painting, etc.

Intelligent Robots

Intelligent robots, as the name suggests, are the most intelligent of all types, with several sensors and microprocessors for storing, analyzing, and processing the data. Intelligent robots can perform any kind of work because of their ability to analyze any situation and provide the necessary movement according to that. For this, the system is provided with several manipulators, having their own controllers.