Purpose of a condensor and its different types

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Purpose Of A Condensor

The purpose of a condenser in the cycle of compression refrigeration is to change the hot gas being discharged from the compressor to a liquid prepared for use in the evaporator. The condenser accomplishes this action by the removal of sufficient heat from the hot gas, to ensure its condensation at the pressure available in the condenser. The heat is shifted to another medium, like water or air, to cool the condenser

Types Of Water Cooled Condensers

Types of water cooled condensers generally used are as follows:

Double Pipe Condenser: These condensers, normally used in ammonia systems, consist of a pipe inside another pipe, or a tube within a tube. The tubes are positioned horizontally to form a vertical bank. The whole unit is fixed on a wall, and the water-ammonia mixture enters the sections at the bottom, flowing up through the inner pipe. The compressed refrigerant vapor goes through the top section flowing downward, due to which a counter flow is created.

Double Tube Condenser: It is a version of the double type condenser in which water flows inside the tubes, and refrigerant flows through the annular space between the two tubes. A compact condensing unit is created by placing the compressor inside the condenser.

Shell And Coil Condenser: It consists of a copper coil located in a steel shell. Water runs through the coil, and refrigerant vapor is discharged from the compressor, condensing on the outside of the cold tubes. This type of condenser is economical, but its maintenance is difficult. If a leakage occurs in the coil, it is essential to remove the head of the shell, and withdrawal of coil from the shell.

Shell And Tube Condenser: It is comprised of a large number of tubes located in a steel shell, with water flowing inside, and vapor flowing around the tubes. The vapors condense on the exterior surface of the tubes, and drops to the bottom of the condenser. A considerable amount of condensing surface is available in a smaller place.

Capacity Of Water Cooled Condensers

The capacity of a water cooled condenser depends on the temperature of the water, the amount of water circulated, and the temperature of the refrigerant gas. The capacity will increase with the temperature difference between the refrigerant gas and water. Temperature difference can be enlarged by increasing the condensation pressure, or decreasing the temperature of the water entering, or by increasing the amount of water to maintain a low water temperature.