Marble Formation, Characteristics, and Applications

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Marble Formation

Marble is a metamorphic rock produced from limestone by pressure and heat in the earth crust due to geological processes. The pressures and temperatures essential to produce this stone generally eliminate any fossils that exist in the initial rock. Due to these forces, the texture of limestone is changed. Impurities in the limestone affect the marble mineral composition.

Marble is available in various colors due to the variety of minerals present in the marble like clay, sand, and silt. It is widely utilized as a building material, in monuments and sculptures, and in numerous other applications. Marbles are suitable for internal and external applications. However, due to modern-day environmental pollution, the polish on marble used for external applications may not be durable.

Characteristics Of Marbles

Marble is a stone with a firm crystalline structure and slight porosity. Due to its structure, marble can be polished to improve its shine and is thus a common and attractive stone for building applications. The restricted marble porosity, mainly when refined, makes it less susceptible to water damage. However, calcium carbonate, the main ingredient of marble, is exceedingly susceptible to acidic agents: it rapidly dissolves in some acids. The actual influence of acidic contact will vary with the kind of the acid: chlorides, sulfates, and other chemical compounds respond in different ways with marble. Byproducts are created that possess a wide range of solubility and influence on the durability of marble. Therefore, it is essential to ascertain the exact kind of pollutants that cause marble deterioration.

Weather Effects On Marble

The forces of nature may produce a decaying effect on the look and structural reliability of marble. These agents include temperature, snow, rain, wind and atmospheric pollutants. Weathering agents normally act in combination with the other agents to increase the deterioration of marble. Rain water, particularly in combination with the atmospheric gases, may cause dissolution of the marble, generating salt movement within the micro-structure. Temperature can intensify the deterioration rate, and the patterns of salt relocation within the stone. High temperatures normally multiply the chemical changes. Sudden changes in temperature can cause stresses due to the differential in expansion. Moisture is considered to be one of the foremost causes of the problems that may happen. However other troubles like erosion due to wind and mutilation may also occur.

Applications Of Marble

Marble has numerous applications for structural and decorative purposes. It is utilized for outdoor sculpture, external walls, floor covering, decoration, stairs, and pavements. The technique of stone usage can influence the exposure severity. Marble is considered the stone for the emperors and gods. The majority of prehistoric monuments were made of marble. Marble has decorated the corridors of cathedrals and historical places. Marble tiles cover the floors of the affluent and also beautifies the baths of more moderate homeowners. These tiles are either polished or honed. Polished tiles provide a stylish appearance, though are extremely slippery when wet. Honed tiles offer more grip and are considered safe. Use of several treatments can slow the marble deterioration process. Marble is vulnerable to etching and staining by water and chemicals, for which appropriate advanced sealants have been developed to reduce this risk considerably.