Description Of An Excavator
An excavator is a useful machine that is utilized in the construction industry, and other useful applications. It consists of an undercarriage that has wheels or tracks for the provision of mobility. Active research is being conducted to improve the excavator characteristics, namely more ground clearance, less noise, and improvement in ride. The older excavators had an extended counterweight that was suspended at the machine rear. It provided additional lifting capability and the force for digging. The modern excavators have been designed such that the counterweight remains inside the track width during swinging. Thus the movement is safe and the maneuverability of the excavator increases during operation in restricted areas. The common excavators are fitted with diesel engines that generate hydraulic pressure for the numerous excavator operations. The modern excavators are being fitted with electric motors that obtain power by fuel cells. The fuel cells are efficient and environmentally friendly. Furthermore, the fuel cells are much lighter and smaller than a diesel engine. The operator cabin is being made more spacious and comfortable.
The excavator has increased the work speed tremendously. It is used extensively in numerous fields, including the following:
- Wood removal in forests
- Normal grading work and landscaping
- Cutting of brushes with attachments
- Demolition of structures, and removal of debris
- Mining industry
- Dredging of rivers
- Installation of piles in foundations
- Digging of foundations, holes and trenches
- Handling of heavy materials
- Laying of heavy pipes
The fundamental mechanism of an excavator consists of the undercarriage that includes the tracks, track frame, blade and the final
drive. The final drive has a hydraulic motor and gears that provide drive to the tracks. The operators cabin, engine, counterweights, hydraulic and fuel tanks are attached to the undercarriage, enabling the excavator to swing 360° without any hindrance. The main function of the excavator engine is to drive the hydraulic pumps that provide oil at a high pressure to the slew motor, rams, track motors, and several accessories. Mostly, the boom can move only up and down, or in addition also shift towards the left and right of the machine. An arm is attached to the boom end that imparts the force for digging into the ground. A bucket is fixed at the arm end for carrying the soil. In addition, there are numerous other categories of attachments with the excavator that are used for boring, crushing, lifting, and ripping.