# Swagatam

## What is Surface Tension in Liquids? Measuring Surface Tension in Capillaries

Surface tension as a name may refer to a cohesive force that inherently keeps the atoms and molecules of liquids bound together. The article helps to understand what surface tension is through practical examples and formulas.

## How to Measure Friction in a Machine

The parameter which makes the existence of an ideal machine virtually impossible is friction, which is in fact an opposing resistance developed due to the interactions between the moving elements of the machine. Here we discuss formulas to measure and eliminate machine friction.

## Calculating Screw Jacks and Their Operation

Screw Jacks are devices used for raising and lowering heavy objects (weights) through external small manual labor. The article discusses the various calculations involved and explains the relation between weight which is to be lifted and the applied external force associated with these devices.

## How Do You Measure Leaf Springs?

The effortless, easy and comfortable experience produced while traveling in vehicles may be largely due to the incorporation of these magnificent devices called leaf springs. However designing these engineering marvels or calculating leaf springs may involve many considerations and formulas.

## Rivets and Types of Rivet Joints Explained

Huge structures like bridges, locomotives, ships, etc. inevitably require joints in order to plan out an inner firm, enduring “skeleton.” Riveted joints play an important part in forming these joints, and are used extensively for the purpose. Here we discuss the major types of rivet joints.

## How to Do Beam Load Calculations

In the field of construction, beam load calculations can become truly critical and require special attention as well as accurate implementation of the results. A simple yet effective way of calculating beam loads is discussed here through derived formulas and expressions.

## Types of Stepper Motors and How They Work

Stepper motors have become favorites of industry motor applications simply because these machines exhibit accurate responses to applied electrical pulses and there are easier to control. This article explains stepper motors, how they work, and the associated pros and cons of their use.

## Build a Simple Hand Crank Flashlight

A hand operated flashlight does not need input from sources like wind or sun in order to generate electricity. Just pressing a spring-gear mechanism is enough to make the device “pump” electricity that can be used for activating an output load.

## How to Make Your Own Home Intercom System

This little home communications system can be used to talk across different rooms or locations within a large premise or an apartment. Build your own following these instructions and circuit schematic.

## How to Build a Homemade 24 Volt AC to DC 20 Amp Transformer With Old Parts

Found an old TV transformer in your electronic junk box and thinking of building a 24 volt AC to DC 20 amp transformer? Just add some diodes, filter capacitor, LED, mains cord, etc. – join them- and your homemade converter is ready to use.

## How to Build an Electrical Toy Telephone That Uses no Power

This toy telephone uses a couple of radio speakers and connecting wires. An update to the string-and-can telephone, this project can be amusing, and educational, too.

## Mosquito Zapper Circuit Diagram and Theory of Operation

Mosquitoes have always remained an excruciatingly irritating pest. Bet you wish you had a way to kill them automatically. Perhaps you’d like to try to build your own electric mosquito zapper.

## How Hall Effect Sensors Work

Hall Effect sensors are miniature SMD ICs based on CMOS technology which are able to convert fast switching magnetic fields induced over their surfaces into distinct and well defined logic outputs. A few of the major types of these sensors involving the respective output patterns are discussed here.

## Learn How to Wire a Doorbell

Looking for an easy, DIY project to try? You’ll be surprised by how easy it is to wire your own doorbell. Follow this simple tutorial.

## How to Make a Motion Detector Alarm Circuit

The article explains a simple yet innovative circuit idea for a motion detector alarm that can be deployed in restricted places as a security device for monitoring unwanted intrusions.

## What is Hydrostatic Pressure and Pascal’s Law of Pressure in a Static Fluid

This article relates Pascal’s law for static fluids and subsequently explains what hydrostatic pressure is. The various formulas required for the evaluation of the discussed laws have been included along with diagram depictions.

## How a U Tube Manometer Works

A U tube manometer is a device normally utilized for measuring pressure in different fluids or gases. Typical uses of this important device under various situations are discussed here through illustrations.

## How to Make a Simple Mini LED Flashlight

A commercially available, cheap mini LED torch may typically be comprised of a white LED, a few button cells and a switch mechanism. One such sample has been diagnosed here. The studied example can be easily duplicated and built by anybody having ordinary technical knowledge.

## Methods and Applications of Compressed Air Energy Storage

Rechargeable batteries probably can be considered the best power-storing devices for various forms of renewable energy, but compressed air energy storage is also promising and should not be overlooked. Unlike batteries these systems are cheaper, lighter, and, most importantly, permanent.

## How a Bandgap Reference IC Works

Zener diodes tend to be easily affected by external temperature variation and therefore are not reliable enough for deriving consistent voltage references. However a bandgap reference IC may be well equipped against this and normally employ a “transistor mirror” configuration to fight it out.