# naveenagrawal ## Kinetic Energy Correction Factor – Kinetic Energy Coefficient – Real Velocity Distribution

We found the total kinetic energy of flow using the average velocity of flow. This is true because we don’t consider the viscous effects. But in real flow conditions, viscous effects are considerable. Read on to about a modification to the energy equation to account for real velocity distribution.

## Minor Losses in Flow – Losses Due to Sudden Changes in the Flow Path

The major component of loss in energy of fluids flowing through different conduits is attributed to frictional losses. But sudden changes in flow path, cross-section area of flow, or the flow direction also cause fluid to dissipate energy called minor losses at these sudden transitions.

## Energy Equation for Real Fluid Flow – Frictional Resistances to Fluid Flow

Nothing is ideal in this world so how can be fluid flow so simple. The model of ideal fluid flow is good for understanding and solving the fluid flow problems, but only up to certain extent of accuracy. To obtain better solutions for real fluid flows we have to take into account associated losses.

## Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation – Finding Pressure, Velocity

Bernoulli’s Equation is readily applied in fluid flow problems to understand the flow and to find the unknown parameters. It has pressure, velocity and elevation terms, so it can be used to find a missing term if others are known for an ideal flow along a streamline between any two points.

## Bernoulli’s Equation for Ideal Fluid Flow Explained

Now we know how the energy of an ideal fluid flow is written in the form of an equation. And we know that this equation gives the total energy of fluid element of unit weight. But what does each term represent and how the equation can be used in analyzing fluid flows. Find it all in this article.

## Bernoulli’s Equation – Energy Equation for Ideal Fluid Flow

In the last two articles we discussed position, velocity, and acceleration of fluid particles in a flow. What causes fluid particles to move and accelerate? This question is answered in the dynamic analysis of fluid flow. It deals with the forces that cause motion and acceleration.

## Kinematics of Manipulators: Velocity Analysis – The Jacobian Matrix

Finding the position and orientation of the links of a manipulator required for attaining a certain position and orientation of the end-effector is just not sufficient. We also want to know the corresponding variation of velocity of the links and joints with the motion of the end-effector.

## Accelerations in Fluid Flow. What is Tangential Acceleration?

If velocity is a basic property of any fluid flow then the change in velocity, acceleration, is also an important attribute of fluid particles in a flow. Read this article for types and components of acceleration of fluid particles and examples of accelerations for different patterns of steady flow.

## The Kinematics of Manipulators – Forward and Inverse Kinematics

In the kinematic design and analysis of manipulators, it is required to find the position and orientation of the end-effector for given values of joint parameters. Sometimes the position to be attained is given and possible values of joint parameters to attain that are to be found.

## Kinematic Analysis of Fluid Flow: Position and Velocity Description – Lagrangian and Eulerian Approach

Like any other mechanical system, the analysis of fluid flow or the mechanics of fluid flow has two parts: the kinematic analysis of fluid flow and the dynamics of fluid flow. Let’s start with the kinematic analysis of the fluid flow. How are kinematics applied to fluid flow analysis?

## Position and Orientation of the Objects – Reference Frames and Transformation of Frames in Robotics

To study the mechanics of robotic manipulators comprehensively and then apply it for the mechanical synthesis of the manipulators, we will first look at the basic topics of mechanics involved in the mechanics of manipulators. Future articles will deal each of them in detail. ## Fluid Particles, Streamtubes and Derivation of Continuity Equation

To understand any problem or physical phenomenon, organize it into parts and consider each part separately and in association with other parts. Similarly we define fluid flow as composition of certain parts based on certain principles, derive laws for them and then integrate them for the fluid flow.

## Control Volume, Differential, Integral, Lagrangian, Eulerian Approaches, System: Fluid Flow Analysis

We have fluid flows with different levels of complexities and we have solution requirements with different levels of details. To deal with the problem, we also have different solution and problem defining approaches. Read in this article what are the different approaches at our disposal?

## Fluid Flow Visualization – Timelines, Pathlines, Streaklines and Streamlines

In engineering, graphical representation is worth, if not thousand, many equations. To understand the fluid flow effectively we have to visualize it graphically. Timelines, Pathlines, Streaklines and Streamlines provide a vivid visualization of a fluid flow. Read on to know what are these lines?

## Types of Fluid Flow – Laminar Flow, Turbulent Flow, Rotational and Irrotational Flow

Fluid flow can be very smooth, calm, and regular, but generally the flow of a fluid is not so disciplined- it becomes a vagabond and starts flowing in random patterns. What are different flow patterns, how are flows classified, and what are the fluid paths in those patterns?

## Classification of Fluid Flow – Uniform Flow and Non-Uniform Flow

When a fluid flows past a point or through a path different parameters associated with the flow of the fluid vary in different patterns. In this article we will study classification of fluid flow in different types according to the conditional variations of the flow parameters with space and time. ## Pressure Measurement Devices – Inclined Manometer, Bourdon Gauge, Diaphragm Gauge, Bellows, Pressure Transducers, Electronic Pressure Sensors

Moderate pressure can be measured with sufficient accuracy by using simple pressure gauges like U-tube manometers. But when very low or high pressures are to be measured with high accuracy, advanced and more complex gauges are required. Common advanced pressure gauges are listed with some details.

## Pressure Measurement – Manometers, Pressure Gauges and Pressure Transducers

Now we know pressure varies in a fluid. But that is not the sufficient information for hydraulics analysis. We need to know what the exact pressure at any particular point is in the fluid system. Hence, the need for pressure measurement methods and devices arises.

## Hydrostatics or Fluid Statics: Pressure Variation with Depth

Fluids at rest have pressure as the major physical quantity to be considered, no flow behavior nor any shear forces. The fluid pressure results in the force acting on the bodies in contact with the fluid. In this article we will study how pressure develops and varies in a static fluid body.

## What is a Fluid? Properties of Fluids. Difference between Liquids & Gases

Before starting the study of fluid behavior, its dynamics and statics, we should have a brief overview of the basic properties of fluids and also a basic knowledge of the terms and quantities defined for fluids. In this article we will take up these basic introductory aspects of the fluids.