Circular pipe culverts are widely used in building projects. Do you know the equations that relate pipe culvert parameters under the condition of inlet control, or outlet control? Learn the equations in this article.
Calculations for heat exchanger designs use heat transfer parameters such as convection heat transfer coefficients, overall heat transfer coefficients, and log mean temperature differences. These calculations are needed for shell and tube and double pipe heat exchangers, as well as other types.
The widespread applications of fluid mechanics and hydraulics in civil engineering include transportation of fluids in pipes and in open channels, as well as flow measurement for both pipes and open channels. These areas of application use a variety of calculations for design and for analysis.