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The Panama Canal represents the perseverance of mankind and the superiority of human intellig ence in overcoming all obstacles. Built between 1904 to 1914 the Panama Canal is a 77 kilometer long conduit joining the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. It cuts the distance of ships traveling from the East to West America and vice versa to about half of the distance it would have taken while rounding Cape Horn. In a Panamax ship on a charter of 32,000 USD per day, it amounts to a lot of money in savings.
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Pure Car and Truck Carrier M.V. Capricornus Leader, on which I crossed the Panama Canal, is a Panamax-sized Car Carrier with a Gross Tonnage of 61854 Metric Tons. It is a huge ship with thirteen car decks and a capacity of carrying about 6,500 cars. The ship is owned by NYK shipping of Japan and managed by Wallem Ship Management, Hong Kong. It is a UMS class ship with a Mitsubishi 8UEC60LS II Main Engine with an output power of 15540 [email protected] RPM. The length of the ship is 199.94 meters, with a width of 32.26 meters and a total height of 49.29 meters.
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Entrance to the Panama Canal
We entered into the Panama anchorage at midnight and crossed the Bridge of Americas, Miraflores locks, and Pedro Miguel Locks at dawn. At daylight we were greeted with views of beautiful villages along the canal. A little further ahead we saw the Centennial Bridge with its huge span of over a thousand meters.
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Crossing the Gaillard Cut
The Gaillard Cut, named after Major David Gaillard of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, is a manmade valley that cuts the continental divide. It is about 12.6 kilometers from the Pedro Miguel locks, and it is estimated that sixty million pounds of dynamite was used to make it. Its construction was a great engineering achievement of its time. The French had started work on the cut and tried to dig it up to sea level, but after 14,256,000 m³ of earth and rock were removed and thousands of deaths were caused by malaria, they quit. It was later completed by Americans who took over in 1904.
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Anchorage on the way
After we entered the Panama Canal from the Pacific Ocean and crossed the Miraflores Locks, Pedro Miguel Locks, Gaillard Cut, and passed under the Centennial Bridge, we arrived at Lake Gatun after a long transit. Lake Gatun is an approximately 24 kilometers wide artificial lake formed by the building of the Gatun Dam. We anchored here to wait for our turn to cross the Gatun Lock and pass on to the Atlantic.
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Entrance to Gotun Locks
After our turn came, we became ready to transit the Gatun Locks. The Gatun Locks are a set of three lock chambers that will bring down our ship 87 feet to sea level. Each lock is 100 feet wide and 1000 feet long and takes 15 minutes to fill up. Around 52 million gallon of water is lost to the sea in each transit. Our Pilot said that the Panamanians are very happy when it rains as it brings them more business.
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Mules of the Panama Canal
Ships crossing the locks move ahead with their own propulsion, however the slow speed of transit along with the shallow depth of water make steering ineffective for the ship. For the purpose of steering and guiding the ship, a set of locomotives hold the ship with steel wire ropes. The locomotives are traditionally called "mules." The mules weigh 50 tons and have two powerful engines of 290 horse power each. The track way is geared and the wheels of the mules are also geared for the great traction required to control the ship.