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Components Of Robots

written by: Uelman Rubio • edited by: Lamar Stonecypher • updated: 4/27/2009

Robots consist of a variety of high tech components which are designed for accuracy, speed and convenience of operation. Some are for general purpose usage, while some are custom made to handle specific parts. The main components are the main body, end effectors, and grippers.

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    Main Body

    An important compentent of a robot is the main body which holds the actuators and manipulators that create the activity for each axis of movement. The manipulator carries the end effectors which grip the objects. Mechanisms that provide response regarding the location are included for identification and rectification of any difference between the chosen position in accordance with the command and the existent position. The intelligence of the robot is in the control element, which directs the manipulator along the ideal route. A power supply is essential to activate the actuators.

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    End Effectors

    End Effectors are a mechanism, which is located on the manipulator that pick up objects, grasp, and manage the movement of items in accordance with the designed parameters. They are designed specifically to handle desired parts and to move in the intended path. End Effectors can be used as nut drivers, accessory for welding processes, or guns for painting purposes. Types of End Effectors include:

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    Permanent Magnet End Effector: It consists of a permanent magnet that moves in an aluminium cylinder. When the actuator drives the magnet towards the front end of the cylinder, it holds ferrous parts. As the magnet is extracted from the cylinder, the magnetic field fades, and the parts are released. This type can be used for only ferrous parts, and has the benefit of managing parts with asymmetrical form as well as holding a number of parts concurrently.

    Electro Magnet End Effector: It is easy to operate, and multiple end effectors can be positioned with the robot arm to perform multiple operations. Even with minor disturbance in the location of parts, or alterations in configuration and dimensions, these end effectors can function effectively. These types can be used for parts with uneven exterior shape, such as coarse ferrous castings or rounded components.

    Vacuum End Effector: It consists of a cup-shaped component, and when it comes into contact with a smooth part, vacuum is created in the cup which ensures that the part remains attached. Controls are used to generate or remove vacuum. This type of end effectors is used for delicate parts.

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    Grippers are of the following types:

    Two Finger: These Grippers are used for gripping components that have uncomplicated form, and can be utilized for inner or outer gripping. The outer gripper is similar to thumb and index finger, and can be utilized for holding a small part or that which is located in a densely filled assembly of components. A tailored form consists of two parallel fingers with disposable inserts that are designed to handle special parts.

    Three Finger: These types are similar to the thumb, index finger, and middle finger of the human hand, and are used for holding parts that are round or that need revolving.