Main Parts Of Bathyscaphe
The bathyscaphe has huge tanks which are filled with gasoline to provide the vessel with the needed buoyancy. Gasoline provides the vessel with high buoyancy and is most importantly incompressible. This property of gasoline helps in resisting high pressures at greater depths. The gasoline tanks are airtight and filled permanently.
Air/Water Ballast Tanks
Apart from the gasoline or float tanks, the bathyscaphe also has ballast tanks for additional buoyancy. Air or water ballast tanks are basically used for descending the vessel into sea water. When the vessel is at the surface the tanks are completely filled with air. In order to commence diving, the tanks are gradually filled with seawater and the vessel dives due to the weight inside the tanks.
The crew cabin was generally at the bottom of the vessel, below the ballast and gasoline tanks. The bathyscaphe has small crew cabins which can accommodate two to four crew members. The walls of the cabin are built extremely thick to withstand high pressures at greater sea depth.
Electromagnet and Ballast Hoppers
Unlike a conventional submarine, a bathyscaphe cannot ascend by substituting sea-water in the ballast tanks with compressed air. For this reason, it uses a special method consisting of iron pellets. The vessel is provided with two large hoppers which are filled with several tonnes of iron pallets held together using electromagnets.
The sail is a protruding structure on the uppermost part of the bathyscaphe, which allows operation in rough weather without flooding. The sail also accommodates various instruments such as tachometers, current meter, and underwater telephone. The sail is connected to the crew cabin through an entrance tunnel. The tunnel gets filled with water when the vessel dives into the sea. Compressed gas is used to push the water out of the entrance tunnel at the end of the dive.
Propeller and Stabilizer
The bathyscaphe also has propellers, fitted at the top and used for steering the vessel. Generally two propellers are provided to the vessel. A stabilizer is also provided and is attached at the rear of the vessel. However, the stabilizer, unlike the rudder, doesn’t move but provides the needed turning through the vessel’s electric motors.