written by: Erik Hinrichsen
• edited by: Lamar Stonecypher
• updated: 8/19/2010
This article provides a summary of the advantages of catamarans, as well as a description of the important factors that limit catamaran hull speed.
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What is a Catamaran?
Before going into the advantages of catamarans, I'd just like to define the term. Catamarans are a class of boat that has two hulls, generally equal in size. The hulls are connected by a structure of some sort. Catamaran hull speeds are very high, making them a good choice for recreational uses. Catamaran sailboats are common, but catamaran ferry designs are quickly growing in popularity due to their unique advantages.
The catamaran is a ship design with an interesting history. The twin-hull design was first observed by Europeans in India in the late 17th century, but it was actually invented by South Pacific islanders. The capabilities of catamarans were more or less ignored in the West until 1877, when an American named Nathanael Herreshoff began developing and racing catamarans. His designs were so much faster than traditional monohull designs that sailing authorities banned them from competition for nearly a century. Today, catamarans are a popular design for recreational and racing sailboats, and are being used in efficient, low-wake ferries.
Catamarans are, in general, faster than single hull boats. This is due to several factors, the most important of which is the hull shape. Displacement hulls are the most common shapes for single hull craft. A displacement hull is supported on the water entirely by buoyancy effects. This creates a hydrodynamic drag barrier, which slows the craft. Catamaran hulls can be designed as planing or displacement hulls, but they are not slowed nearly as much by the drag barrier. Catamarans reduce drag by making use of a very thin and pointed hull design.
Catamarans are also very light, which further reduces drag and displacement. Catamarans save on weight because the multihull design eliminates the need for a keel counterweight, as the same purpose (righting the ship) is served by the hull spacing. This can make them difficult to turn, however.
Catamarans are also more stable than monohull ships, enabling designers to use more sail per foot of the boat. Stability comes from the wide beam legth; beam length is the distance from one side of the boat to the other. This wide beam and stability also allows catamarans to gain more power from heavy gusts, because they do not tend to heel over like monohulls do.
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Catamaran Hull Speed
More efficient single hull boats are designed to travel with a low Froude number, which reduces but does not eliminate the drag barrier. This drag limits hull speed based on a relation involving length at waterline, given by the formula V=(gL/(2pi))1/2, where g is the gravitational constant and L is the waterline length. This is the theoretical limit for single hull displacement craft. Note that ships can sometimes exceed this theoretical limit, but to do so requires a very large power source.
The calculations for a catamaran are more complicated. The formula for catamaran hull speed is 1.34*(wetted length)1/2; however, this drag formula is generally not the limiting factor for catamaran hull speed. This is because boats with waterline length to beam ratios greater than 8:1 are not limited by hydrodynamic drag factors, whereas smaller boats need to plane to do so (planing requires enormous amounts of power for displacement hulls). A more important factor to consider is the prismatic coefficient, Cp. Cp = V/(LBP*Am), where V is the volume of water displaced by the hull, LBP is the length between perpendiculars, and Am is the area at midship.
Very fast boats actually require a high prismatic coefficient, which in turn requires a less-narrow boat. However, narrower hulls can get away with a lower prismatic coefficient. The ideal range of Cp for a catamaran is between 0.61 and 0.65. There are a few ways of increasing the prismatic coefficients: sailors can use bulb bows, a wide planing aft segment, or a flat hull rocker in conjunction with a bustle aft. Though high prismatic coefficients increase drag at low speed, at high speeds they can reduce drag by as much as ten percent.
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Catamaran Hulls and Low-Wake craft.
As explained here, catamarans can be used to create low-wake ferries. Because of their wide bows and low weights, catamarans can be made to travel quickly with minimal wake. Catamaran ferries are also more fuel-efficient, because of the previously-mentioned factors.