There are three main parts of a turbocharger :
- Impeller / Compressor
- Central Hub
The wheels of the turbine and compressor are contained in their own conical housing. The amount of air that is to be submitted depends on the sizes of these wheels. The shaft is contained in the central hub with the help of bearings and connects the turbine and impeller wheel on the opposite sides. Due to high speed of rotation, extreme heat is generated in the hub. Water cooling or any other form of cooling system is provided to prevent temperatures from rising.
Sufficient sealing arrangements are made between the compressor and turbine side to prevent mixing of gases. A filter is provided on the turbine side to ensure that the air going to the compressor side is free of any impurities.
The turbine side is usually made of cast iron material. The inlet side of the turbine have nozzle blade ring which is used for two purposes -
- To guide the incoming gas onto the turbine wheel
- To house the turbine bearings
The outlet side of the turbine casing consists of blower and air passages to supply air to labyrinths seals.
The compressor side is usually made of aluminum alloys and it also consists of two parts. The inlet part or casing deals with drawing air from the surrounding areas i.e engine room or deck spaces. If air is drawn from the deck spaces, special ducting is made for the same. The advantage of drawing air from the deck spaces is low air temperature and humidity. While the advantage of drawing air from the engine space is that the air is pressurized and there is no need for long and complex ducting arrangements.
The main parts on the compressor side are inducer, impeller, diffuser and inlet and outlet casing.