The transducers that convert the mechanical input signals into electrical output signals are called as electrical transducers. The output obtained from the electrical transducers can be read by the humans or it can given as input to the controllers.
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What are Electrical Transducers?
The transducers that convert the mechanical input signals of the physical quantity into electrical output signals are called as electrical transducers. The input given to the electrical transducers can be in the form of the displacement, strain, velocity, temperature, flow etc and the output obtained from them can be in the form of current, voltage and change in resistance, inductance and capacitance. The output can be measured easily and it is calibrated against the input, thus enabling the measurement of the value of the input.
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II) Electrical Transducers
Here are some of commonly used electrical transducers:
1) Potentiometers: They convert the change in displacement into change in the resistance, which can be measured easily.
2) Bridge circuits: These convert the physical quantity to be measured into the voltage.
3) Wheatstone bridge: It converts the displacement produced by the physical quantity to the current in the circuit.
4) Capacitive sensors or Variable Capacitance Transducers: These comprise of the two parallel plates between which there is dielectric material like air. The change in distance between the two plates produced by the displacement results in change in capacitance, which can be easily measured.
6) Magnetic sensors: The input given to these sensors is in the form of displacement and the output obtained is in the form of change in inductance or reluctance and production of the eddy currents.
7) Piezoelectric transducers: When force is applied to these transducers, they produce voltage that can be measured easily. They are used for measurement of pressure, acceleration and force.
8) Strain gauges: When strain gauges are strained or stretched there is change in their resistance. They consist of the long wire and are able to detect very small displacements produced by the applied force or pressure.
9) Photo electric transducers: When the light is applied to these transducers they produce voltage.